Type of Autonomous systems

There are 4 types of autonomous systems, these are:

  1. Human in the Loop (HitL): The human does the decision-making and the machine is providing only recommendations of actions, context and supporting evidence behind those decisions to reduce time-to-meaning and time-to-action for that human operator.
  2. Human in the Loop for Exceptions (HitLfE): Most decisions are made autonomously by the model, and the human only handles exceptions launched by the system.
  3. Human on the Loop (HotL): The machine takes all actions, and the human operator can review the outcomes of those actions to understand the context around these actions. When the human identifies issues or improvements, then changes the system.
  4. Human out of the Loop (HootL): The system makes every decision, and the process of improvement. All is an automated closed loop. The human is out of the loop.

In a short diagram,

the 4 types are:

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