VRoom’s Expectancy theory

Expectancy theory proposes an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.

Expectancy theory has three components:

  1. Expectancy: effort → performance (E→P)
  2. Instrumentality: performance → outcome (P→O)
  3. Valence: V(R) outcome → reward

Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence

“If I work hard and do well, I will be rewarded with something I find valuable”

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