Expectancy theory proposes an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.
Expectancy theory has three components:
- Expectancy: effort → performance (E→P)
- Instrumentality: performance → outcome (P→O)
- Valence: V(R) outcome → reward
Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
“If I work hard and do well, I will be rewarded with something I find valuable”